The Nine Point Hydari Agreement: Understanding the Historical Importance
The Nine Point Hydari Agreement, also known as the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR), was an agreement between the British Indian Empire and the tribal leaders of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in present-day Pakistan. The agreement was signed on August 12, 1947, just a day before the independence of Pakistan and India.
The agreement was named after Sir Sahabzada Abdul Qayyum Khan, popularly known as Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan, who was the then-governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main purpose of the agreement was to establish a political system in the FATA region that would allow the tribal leaders to govern their areas according to their customs and traditions. The agreement also aimed to give the tribal areas a degree of autonomy from the central government of Pakistan.
The Nine Point Hydari Agreement consisted of nine important points that were agreed upon by both the British Indian Empire and the tribal leaders. The first point stated that the FATA would be governed by a separate political system that would be established in consultation with the tribal leaders. The second point stated that the British Indian Empire would continue to have control over the main roads and railways passing through the tribal areas.
The third point stated that the tribal leaders would be responsible for maintaining law and order in their respective areas. The fourth point stated that the tribal leaders would be granted power to collect taxes and revenues from their areas. The fifth point stated that the tribal leaders would be allowed to settle disputes among themselves according to their customs and traditions.
The sixth point stated that the tribal leaders would be allowed to maintain their own armies or militias to protect their areas from external threats. The seventh point stated that the British Indian Empire would not interfere in the internal affairs of the tribal areas unless it was necessary for the maintenance of law and order. The eighth point stated that the FATA would remain outside the jurisdiction of the regular courts of Pakistan.
The last point of the agreement stated that the agreement would remain in force until it was repealed or amended by mutual agreement of the parties involved.
The Nine Point Hydari Agreement was a significant moment in the history of the FATA region and Pakistan. It allowed the tribal leaders to govern their areas according to their customs and traditions, which was essential to maintain peace and stability in the region. The agreement also provided a framework for the political system of FATA, which remained unchanged until the introduction of the reforms in 2018.
In conclusion, the Nine Point Hydari Agreement was an important milestone in the history of Pakistan. It laid the foundation for the political system of FATA, which allowed the tribal leaders to govern their areas according to their customs and traditions. Despite its flaws and limitations, the agreement helped maintain peace and stability in the region for many years. Its legacy is visible even today, as Pakistan continues to grapple with the issues of governance and autonomy of its tribal areas.